WP1: Project Management

D.1.1– Project shared workspace implemented and operational (PSW) - Confidential
To fulfil two fundamental internal project communication requirements: i)efficient exchange between partners of information about CREATE project ii) decentralised and secured archiving of the documents generated, one independent and secured web-based communication tool: Project Shared Workplace – PSW has been implemented with a restricted access for project partners only.
The PSW maintenance will continue throughout the project lifetime.


WP2: Technical specifications, cost analysis and life cycle analysis

D.2.1– Definition of test protocols - Confidential
The deliverable 2.1 is related to the task 2.1 Definition of test protocols. The objective is to set up the conditions for the in situ testing of cells produced during the project. The harmonization of the test conditions is a crucial parameter to get homogeneous measurements between partners of the consortium testing cells and to compare them to durability and performance targets that are defined in relation with performance and durability protocols for diverse end user applications. The deliverable specifies the test conditions for the different electrochemical cells (especially, differentiating fuel cell from electrolyzer cells). Operating cell parameters such as temperature, pressure and flow of gases, water content are specified, as well as the protocol of electrochemical control for the break-in of cells, then the recording of polarization curves, and the measurement of the cell stability.

D.2.2– Industrial requirements of polymer-based cells for hydrogen and electricity production - Confidential
This deliverable report covers the work carried out for Task 2.2 Definition of Industrial Requirements. It elaborates on the key requirements of performance, cost and durability. Guidelines are provided for the partners developing new materials to assist in transferring technology from the lab to the industrial environment.

D.2.3– Life cycle assesment - goal and scope report - Confidential
CREATE aims at developing innovative membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for low-temperature fuel cells and electrolysers with reduced cost.
This will be achieved via elimination or drastic reduction of critical raw materials in their catalysts, enabling cost-efficient solutions. In order to show the implications in terms of environmental performance of these new MEAs, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is conducted to compare the new MEAs with state-of-the-art PEM-based cells in expected real world applications.
This report is an intermediate report in which the goal and scope of the final assessment is described. To this end, the product groups are described in technical terms, and the goal of the LCA and its scope are defined. While the goal and scope definition does usually not include Life Cycle Inventory
(LCI) data, this report provides such information for the assumed reference stack for fuel cell and electrolyser applications for the purpose of achieving an early agreement with and understanding by the consortium members.
The LCI data and the technical specifications, needed from the CREATE partners in view of the final report, are also specified for the reference cells and the newly developed cells, respectively..


WP3: Catalyst synthesis and characterisation

D.3.1– CRM-FREE OER and HER catalyst to WP5 FOR AEMEL testing -  PDF
The report presents activity and stability data for selected electrocatalysts investigated during M1-M10 in CREATE for HER and OER in alkaline medium. For OER, unsupported binary and ternary ZnFe and NiZnFe metal oxides show the highest OER activity (optimized metal ratios). Increased activity is observed after electrochemical cycling for Ni33Zn33Fe33Ox,
reaching ca 50 % of the internal CREATE target of activity and passing the stability criterion. Interfacing this OER active phase with a high surface area conductive Ni support will be explored to further increase the activity. For HER, low Pt content on SWNT and CRM-free N-doped CNT were selected as best representative of CRM-lean and CRM-free alternatives. While the low Pt/SWNT approach reaches both the internal activity and stability targets, the N-CNT approach results in stable but too little active materials. CRMfree but metal-based HER catalysts will be investigated in the near future to close the activity gap for CRM-free HER catalysts.

 D.3.2– Set of CRM-free ORR catalyst and CRM-free or ultralow-PGM HOR catalyst with activity verified by RDE sent to WP5 for AEMFC testing -  PDF
The report presents activity and stability data for selected electrocatalysts developped during M1-M12 in CREATE for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium. For ORR, a Fe-N-C catalyst pyrolyzed in Ar and then NH3 shows high activity. A restricted activity loss is observed after accelerated-stress-test of electrochemical load cycling in rotating disk electrode. The ORR catalyst reaches the internal CREATE target of activity for Critical Raw Material (CRM)-free catalysts and also passes the internal stability criterion. Composites Fe-N-C/Mnoxides were also explored for improving peroxide scavenging properties. For HOR, two CRM-free catalysts were developed and one ultralow content Ptcatalyst. As CRM-free, Nickel nanoparticles on a nitrogen-doped carbon support (Ni/N-CNT) and Nickel-Iron nanoparticles on a carbon support (NiFe/C) were developped. Their HOR activity was verified and, while comparable to that reported for other CRM-free catalysts, is yet lower than the internal activity target of CREATE. The 8%Pt/SWNT HOR catalyst very closely approaches the internal CREATE activity target and passes the stability criterion. Approaches to reduce the content of Pt (PGM) and to increase the activity of CRM-free catalysts will be further explored with high throughput methods while the synthesis parameters of CRM-free ORR catalysts will be further refined to reach beyond the state-of-art activities.


WP4: Ionomer synthesis and membrane preparation

D.4.1 – First generation of AEM & AEI materials for AEMFC and AEMEL -  PDF
The report presents the preparation, conductivity and stability data for selected anion exchange ionomers (AEI) and anion exchange membranes (AEM) that will be used as a first generation of AEI and AEM for short-term testing of AEM fuel cell (AEMFC) and AEM electrolysers (AEMEL) in combination with benchmark catalysts and novel catalysts developed in CREATE.

D.4.2 – Second generation of AEM and AEI materials for improved AEMFC and AEMEL devices -  PDF
The report presents the preparation, conductivity and stability data for selected anion exchange ionomers (AEI) and anion exchange membranes (AEM) that will be used as a second generation of AEI and AEM for testing of AEM fuel cell (AEMFC) and AEM electrolysers (AEMEL) in combination with benchmark catalysts and novel catalysts developed in CREATE.

D.4.3 – Supply of BMs with proven ex situ properties for testing in BMFC and BMEL -  PDF
The report presents the preparation and characterisation of bipolar membranes (BM) with improved ex situ properties with respect to stability and resistance. The BM will be supplied for testing in bipolar membrane fuel cells (BMFC) and bipolar membrane electrolysers (BMEL).

D4.4 – Optimized AEM & AEI: Ex Situ characterisation and testing in AEMFC and AEMEL -  PDF
This report presents a novel technique which was used to measure the conductivity, stability and performance properties obtained with the optimized anion exchange membrane (AEM) and anion exchange ionomer (AEI) developed during CREATE. The conductivity and stability of lowdensity polyethylene benzyltrimethylammonium LDPE-BTMA and FAA-3-5 AEMs were measured ex situ via a Scribner MTS 740. The AEI developed during CREATE was used in catalyst layers and combined with these membranes to further evaluate their in situ performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) via a Scribner 850e fuel cell test station. With these initial results we show positive performance utilizing these novel materials and recommend that further testing be conducted to evaluate their long-term stability in AEMFCs.


WP5: Cell assembly and cell testing

D.5.1– Manufacture of CRM-free or ultralow-CRM MEAs for AEMEL and testing -  Confidential
This deliverable reports the first results from the manufacture of CRM‐free and low‐CRM membrane electrode assemblies and the testing of these in AEMEL electrolyser test cells at small scale. Two manufacture methods, catalyst coated membrane (CCM) and catalyst coated electrode (CCE), and two testing configurations, with or without support electrolyte, have been trialled. Additionally, a low‐CRM catalyst for HER in acidic conditions has been tested for use in BMEL.

D.5.2– Manufacture of CRM-free or ultralow-CRM MEAs for AEMFC and testing -  Confidential
The report presents beginning-of-life polarisation curves and power performance data recorded in Anion-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells (AEMFCs). The polarisation curves of AEMFCs were recorded for benchmark anodes and cathodes based on platinum-group-metals (PGMs), as well as with selected anode and cathode electrocatalysts and anionexchange membrane developped during M1-M24 in CREATE. For the latter, peak power performance between 0.35 and 1.0 W·cm-2 were recorded with PGM-free cathodes and PtRu-based anode, depending on anode PGM loading.


WP6: Dissemination and exploitation

D.6.1– Project website -  PDF
The CREATE project website is designed to fulfil project communication and dissemination needs for the benefit of the whole scientific community and the public through relevant information including:
- project overall objectives, partner & work packages information
- project activities: news, meetings
- project progress: technical publications, conference presentations, public domain reports
- project resources: links, related events …
- project contact information
All the partners will collectively participate in the dissemination objective of the website by providing up-to-date information.

D.6.2– Dissemination and knowledge management protocol -  Confidential
This report presents the dissemination protocol for the CREATE project, the procedure for “Open Access” to peer reviewed research articles, internal rules, information on support from the EU members and the strategy for Knowledge Management within the project.

D.6.3 Organisation of a workshop on AEM- and BM-based devices for electrochemical energy conversion - PDF
CREATE jointly organised with the FCH JU CRESCENDO project (http://www.crescendo-fuelcell.eu) the second edition of the Electrolysis and Fuel Cell Discussions conference, EFCD2019, dedicated to catalysts with minimum amount of Critical Raw Materials, and in particular of Platinum Group Metals. This highly successful international conference was held at La Grande Motte in France, 15-18 September 2019. Attended by 160 international participants, it provided the opportunity to apprise the state of the art, showcase CREATE and CRESCENDO results and interact with other FCHJU/ H2020 funded projects, including PEGASUS, which was invited to share a special session.